Why use WIG-Crafts
Short theory
Types of WIG-Craft
Skimmer 2
Skimmer 2 & 4
Big Ekranoplans
Copyright    2010  by B. Kohler
      All rights reserved


WIG-crafts are not aircraft's. Specific design criteria are complete different compared to an aircraft. For example the take off. An aircraft uses a angle of about 14 degree for maximum lift to shorten the take off distance. A WIG-craft has to be started without this facility. To flare with high speed so low over a surface the have to be auto stable. Over the years different types of WIG-crafts where developed to optimize this type of craft.
Tandem W.I.G. ( Joerg Principe )
The tandem wing concept uses two small wings in line. The wings are set in different angles in respect to each other. This configuration provides excellent stability. No horizontal stabilizer is necessary. The flaring height is relative low.
Reversed Delta W.I.G. ( Prof. Lippisch Principe )
The reversed delta wing is very stable by it self, so that only a small horizontal stabilizer is necessary. Fischer Flugmechanik ( Germany ) develop these crafts. These crafts can also jump. The use V-hulls like on a speed boat. The most power is necessary to get over the hump speed of the hull. Once flaring the power can be reduced by 50 % for cruising.
Examples of Lippisch vehicles are the Airfisch series and the Flightship FS 8.

Ekranoplans where a Russian invention. These crafts have wings with a very low aspect ratio of 1 to 4 with endplates and flaps. At the start the blow air under the wings to establish an air cushion. At cruising speed the propellers are tilted in a more vertical position for more forwards trust i.e. speed.
Big models use separate engines for trust and under wing blowing in front of the wing. All Ekranoplans have huge horizontal stabilizers. These crafts are also called PAR-WIG crafts (Power Augmented Ram Wing in Ground Effect. Many have been built in different sizes, the largest exceeding 500 tons. Russian companies are the only companies who can deliver now.