Why use WIG-Crafts
Short theory
Types of WIG-Craft
Skimmer 2
Skimmer 2 & 4
Big Ekranoplans
Copyright    2010  by B. Kohler
      All rights reserved
Why use WIG-craft's  
Wing in ground effect crafts skim very low over the surface. Typical at a height of 10 % of there wing span. At this height the aerodynamic drag is almost diminished. Due to the pressure increase under the wing at this low height about 80 % more lift is generated compared to a wing out of ground effect.
This double effect makes wing in ground effect craft extreme efficient vehicles. Because of this the use about 50 % less fuel in relation to an aircraft. No very fast ship can match the speed of a big WIG-craft ( about 210 miles per hour). WIG-craft settle between aircraft's and very fast ships. Depending on the type of WIG-craft, the can use normal harbor facilities. For medium distances the can match the overall traveling time of air transport.  WIG-crafts are no aircraft's and can be certified as boats. Actual, our Skimmer 2 is provisional certified as boat.
In the U.S.A., Amphistar's XTREME XPLORER is classified as boat by the USCG. Universal hovercrafts UH 18 as well. The tandem WIG-craft from Mr. Joerg in Germany has the same classification. The Hoverwing from Fischer Flugmechanik has a provisional permit in the
Netherlands. The VOLGA 2 is also classified as boat in Russia. In general permits are granted to all crafts.
Through the classification as boats no aircraft engines or other aircraft materials have to be used, which makes them less cost intensive.
They can be driven with a boat license. Attention, for professional use observe national requirements.
The IMO recognizes three classes of WIG-craft
Type A 
WIG-crafts who can not operate out of ground effect.
Type B
These crafts can jump to clear an obstacles by converting kinetic 
energy into potential energy (height). But the cannot 
maintain flight over a long time without the support of ground effect. 
- Consumes 50% less as an aircraft and <
about only 15 % of a fast boat.
- Low maintenance costs.
- Short amortization time.

- Cruising speed 120 km/h to 400 km/h ( scale factor )
- No sea sickness.
- No air sickness.
- Easy to handle .


- Crafts are auto stable.
- In case of engine failure the vehicle settles slowly down on the surface.
- Unsinkable

- Low fuel consumption = low air pollutiion.
- No water contamination. Closed circuit water or air cooled engines.
- Almost no waves. No damage to vegetation when used on rivers, no
damage to the underwater world ( air prop./ jet drive ).
Low noise
Type C
Type C crafts are in principle an aircraft's with the ability to
operate safe in ground effect.
These crafts have to be certified as aircraft's
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